Does a diet with High Fructose Corn Syrup have an effect on how hungry you feel?
Below are studies examining the link between high fructose corn syrup and its impact on satiety (feeling of fullness).
- Evidence-Based Review on the Effect of Normal Dietary Consumption of Fructose on Development of Hyperlipidemia and Obesity in Healthy, Normal Weight Individuals.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 50 (1): 53-84, 2009. Laurie C. Dolan PhDa, Susan M. Potter PhD, RDb & George A. Burdock PhD, FACN, DABTaIn recent years, there has been some speculation that an increase in consumption of fructose from foods and beverages is an underlying factor responsible for increases in obesity. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the existing database for a connection between the ingestion of fructose in a normal, dietary manner and the development of increased body weight in healthy, normal weight humans, using an evidence-based approach. The research review also looked at metabolic markers such as triglycerides, insulin and the hormones leptin and ghrelin, which are associated with satiety. The results of the analysis indicate that fructose does not cause biologically relevant changes in body weight when consumed at normal levels.
- Fructose and Satiety.
Journal of Nutrition. 139(6: 1253S-1256S, June 2009. Timothy H. Moran.Timothy H. Moran, Ph.D., co-director of the Center for Metabolism and Obesity Research at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, reviewed research on fructose-containing sweeteners and their impact on feelings of fullness (satiety). He noted that results were dependent on a variety of factors ranging from how the sweeteners were administered to the timing of hunger measurements. Dr. Moran concluded, “On balance, the case for fructose being less satiating than glucose or high fructose corn syrup being less satiating than sucrose is not compelling.”
- Similar effects of high fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating levels of glucose, leptin, insulin and ghrelin.
Nutrition. 23: 103-112, 2007. Kathleen J Melanson, Linda Zukley, Joshua Lowndes, Von Nguyen, Theodore J Angelopoulos, James M Rippe.This study compared and reviewed the effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and table sugar on circulating levels of glucose, leptin, insulin and ghrelin in a study group of lean women. All four tested substances have been hypothesized to play a role in metabolism and obesity. Leptin and ghrelin are hormones associated with satiety or hunger and fullness signals. The study found “no differences in the metabolic effects” of high fructose corn syrup and sucrose in this short-term study, and called for further similar studies of obese individuals and males.
- Sugars and satiety: does the type of sweetener make a difference?
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 86 (1), 116-123, July 2007. Pablo Monsivais, Martine M Perrigue and Adam Drewnowski.Widespread use of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in beverages has been linked to rising obesity rates. One hypothesis is that HFCS in beverages has little satiating power. The objective of this study was to compare the relative effect of commercial beverages containing sugar or HFCS on hunger, satiety, and energy intakes at the next meal. The researchers found that beverages sweetened with sugar and high fructose corn syrup as well as 1% milk all have similar effects on feelings of fullness.
- Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol. 86 (5), 1354-1363, November 2007. Tina Akhavan and G Harvey Anderson.Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of solutions containing sucrose, HFCS, or various ratios of glucose to fructose on food intake, average appetite, blood glucose, plasma insulin, ghrelin, and uric acid in men. The researchers found that sugar, HFCS, and 1:1 glucose/fructose solutions do not differ significantly in their short-term effects on subjective and physiologic measures of satiety, uric acid and food intake at a subsequent meal.
- No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 86 (6), 1586-1594, December 2007. Stijn Soenen and Margriet S Westerterp-PlantengaIt is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sugar in comparison with milk and a diet drink on feelings of fullness. The researchers found “no differences in satiety, compensation or overconsumption” between the beverages.
Please note that the CRA also references the following two studies with regards to satiety:
Timothy H. Moran, Ph.D., co-director of the Center for Metabolism and Obesity Research at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, reviewed research on fructose-containing sweeteners and their impact on feelings of fullness (satiety). He noted that results were dependent on a variety of factors ranging from how the sweeteners were administered to the timing of hunger measurements. Dr. Moran concluded, “On balance, the case for fructose being less satiating than glucose or high fructose corn syrup being less satiating than sucrose is not compelling.” (Moran T. 2009. Fructose and Satiety. Journal of Nutrition 139(6): 1253S-1256S.)
Further, research by Almiron-Roig and co-workers in 2003 showed that a regular soft drink, orange juice and low-fat milk were not significantly different in their effects on hunger or satiety ratings, or in calories consumed at a subsequent meal. (Almiron-Roig E, Drewnowski A. 2003. Hunger, thirst, and energy intakes following consumption of caloric beverages. Physiol Behav 79:767-774.)